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MAY, 1899, to APRIL, 1900.


Published by H. A. PILSBRY and C. W. JOHNSON.

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Abalone fishery in California _. ; : ie Agassiz Association Department : . 23, 84, 59 Amnicola Johnsoni Pilsbry, n. sp. ; : { ; ee TOE Amnicola sanctijohannis Pilsbry, n. sp. : 4 AeA) Amnicolide from Florida . : PVA, Amnicoloid, a new N.-H. Australian . ; ! . 144 Arion fasciatus Nils. in America. ; We he Arizona and New Mexico, Collecting in. 2 ye Ashmunella thomsoniana porter Pilsbry ane: Bookercit, nV. : : , : awe) Aspidoporus, Dr. Babor’ S en ES Of, Rey Bifidaria armifera var. ruidosensis Cockerell,n.v. WIS California, collecting in Southern oe California, mollusks collected by R.C. McGregorinnorthern 64 Calliostoma Veliei Pilsbry, n. sp, : . 128 Canandaigua Lake Region of New York, Biailicoa ae ny Capulus Californicus Dall., n. sp. ; . 100 Chitons from the Piecene of the ies ae Easy Florida . , “i cae Chlorostoma Beanicor pilebee Sp. : ; : Page | Chlorostoma Orbignyanum Pilsbry, n. ay , z rtd Chlorostoma patagonicum Orb. . ; ah tl.O Chlorostoma of Southern and Eastern ose tO Chondropoma Martensianum Pilsbry, n. sp. . 140 Clausiliz of Celebes, note on the : 4 . Sh Cochlicopa lubrica in Alaska ; : Bi Ske } ( ili )



Conulus coroicanus Ancey, n. sp. 17 Correspondence . . 83 Corrosion of shells in dahmne ; 122 Donax stultoram Mawe vs. Cytherea Gfassatelloidee Cane he Dredging in San Diego Bay . EOL Dredging off San Pedro ; 21 Epiphragmophora andivaga Ancey, n. sp. tks Epiphragmophora Bowersi Bryant, n. sp. . 122 Epiphragmophora fidelis Gray e105 Epiphragmophora Harperi Bryant, n. sp. STAs Epiphragmophora mormonum buttoni Pilsbry, n. v. - 1128 Epiphragmophora mormonum cala Pilsbry, n. v. . 428 Epiphragmophora Turtoni Ancey, n. Sp. me | Field notes and reminiscences as Florida, Collecting on the Gulf Coast of hs Florida, Notes on some land shells of Western . 141 Gastrodonta demissa var. lamellata Pilsbry, 107 General notes . [2a Onc. ue 70, 84. 111, 129 Glandina truncata var, minor Puen D.V: 46 Gonibasis acutifilosa siskiyouensis Pilsbry, n. v.. 65 Hartman, William D. (with portrait, pl. 1) . 61 Helix hortensis at Rockport. Mass., variations of 32 Land shells of Berks Co., Pennsylvania 70 Limax coccineus Gistel 117 Lithasia obovata, changes with betes of... 97 Lucidella Foxi Pilsbey ar oo 56 Lucidella trochiformis Pilsbry, n.sp. . ; ee Maine, List of Shells from Northeastern. ; - LOZ tis Manitoba, List of Land and Freshwater Shells of a Margaritana margaritifera var. falcata from a tunnel . ae 11) Mexican shells, notes on some southern Bre | Miami, Florida, Annotated List of land and froshavatee shells 43 Madioln plicatdla a in San Francisco Bay , So) aa Mollusca associated with the Mastodon : 34, 55, 100 Mollusks of Lily Cash Creek, Illinois. Beet) Myoforceps aristatus Dillwyn, from California salen New Mexican Shells, Notes on some 19 Ostrea, Origin of the mutations of , 91 Ogee Lake, N. Y., notes on the mollusca of 57


Pachychilus vulneratus Paludestrina monas Pilsbry, n. sp.

2] Petricola denticulata, note on 12] Philomyeus lactiformis (Blainville) 24 Physa cubensis in Florida ; 70 Pisidia new to our country and new species a) Pisidium amnicum Mull. ' . Pisidium boreale Sterki n. n. (for seplentrionale Prime pre- occupied ) : pee. Pisidium contortum Prime. 10, 59 Pisidium handwerki Sterki, n. sp. 9() Pisidium henslowianum Shep. 9 Pisidium medianum Sterki, n. sp. 10 Pisidium medianum var. minutum Sterki n. var. . aie ld Pisidium milium Held 10, 59 Planorbis corpulentus Say . A liao Planorbis crista var. cristata Drap. in Plaine a9) 105 Planorbis opercularis var. multilineatus Vanatta 48 Planorbis rubellus Sterki and P. Harni Pilsbry 5] Polygyra, new southwestern form of 37 Polygyra appressa, notes on 54 Polygyra auriculata in Western Florida 118 -Polygyra binneyana Pilsbry, n. sp. 38, 60 Polygyra caloosaensis Johnson,n.sp. Pliocene inet ted, 67 Polygyra divesta indianorum Pilenee eT NAT, ; 39 Polygyra dorfeuilliana var. percostata Pilsbry, n. var. 37 Polygyra monodon var. friersoni Pilsbry, n. var. 36 Polygyra neglecta Pilsbry, n. sp. ye A) Polygyra tridontoides [= texasiana—Hp. | in Men Mone 84 Polygyra uvulifera var. bicornuta, n. var. 107 Pomatia aspersa in California 60 Pyramidula alternata, notes on two varieties of . 4] Pyramidula alternata var. costata Lewis 4] -Pyramidula alternata var. rarinotata Pils., n. var. 114 Publications received . PUSS VL OeS | Purpura coronata Lam. in America : 130 Rhode Island, Collection of Fresh-water shells from 112 Rumina Pe siinin. some notes on Ri Shells collected at Oakdale, Morgan-Co., Pent: TO


Shells and Mastodon .

Sigaretus oldroydii, notes on

Stephanoda Iheringi Ancey, n. sp.

Stephanoda latastei Ancey, n. sp. ; : Strobilops hubbardi stevensoni Pilsbry, n. var. . Strombus, attempt to define the natural groups of Thomson, John H. (Biographical note)

Thy Sa iphare hornii Gabb. :

Tres Marias Islands, Mexico, Natural ieee of Turritellide, Viviparous Miocene

Unios of the Sabine River .

Unionide in a tunnel .

Unio conjugans Wright, n. sp.

Unio Danielsii Wright, n. sp.

Unio dispalans Wright, n. sp.

Unio Hagleri Frierson, n. sp. (Plate it yi

Unio Harperi Wright, n. sp.

Unio Kingii Wright, n. sp..

Unio polymorphus Wright, n. sp.

Unio rotulatus Wright, n. sp.

Unio (Lampsilis) owirasai Pies n. Sp. Unio singularis Wright, n. sp.

Unio Tinkeri Wright, n. sp.

Unio unicostatus Wright, n. sp.

Veronicella, notes on Jamaican .

Viviparous miocene Turritellidz

34, 55, 100 85




16, 93 meee:


Zonitidz collected by J. H. Ferriss in Arhanes sata the

Choctaw Nation

Zonitoides neomexicanus Gookerel & Pileeee n. sp.


Ancey, C. F. ; : ; : ; ae Ashmun, Rev. EK. H. . : : , ; , pws Baker, Frank C. . é : 30, 57, 112 Burns, Frank. : ; ; prs Button, Fred. L. : ; 30,131 Bryant, FW. ~ : 222,143 Chadwick, G. H. . : : : . 04, 76, 93 Clapp, Geo. H. . : : ; 41, 70 Cockerell, T. D.A. ; . . 82,36, 49, 84,.117 Collinge, Walter E. . : : : 2 : rae ky eee Csi, «89, 85, 91, 100, 121 Frierson, Lorraine BS. . ; : ; abo 09 Hanham, A. W. . i : ; ; a | Johnson, C. W. . ' : GPA T 130,141 Kendig, Rey. A.B. . , ARs Keep, Josiah , : 21.60 RelseyoF W.: . . : : : : : F abot King, Mrs. KE. H. : ; ; ee Lowe, H. N. : : ; AT Mitchell, C.F... : : hp erent iiender, Olof O. ee 09s, SOLS 1S

Pilsbry, Henry A. 20, 32, 37, 49, 51, 56, 64, 70, 79, 98, 107, ‘110, 114, 128, 131, 139, 144

Post, E. J. . : : : : : ; ; pais Randolph, P. B.. : : : ; epee Rhoads, Samuel NN... ; : : , : ; 543 Smith, W. Hilles. : } , t . 384 Stearns, R. HE. C.. , hoy o5-S1, 86, 1005 115 Sterki, V. . : Bey? ; ; ; Jp a Sykes, H. R. i : ; : : : ; ; SG Vanatta, E.G. . . 3 ; , : «» 48 Walker, Bryant . ; : 59, 9T, 183 Wright, Berlin H. : aa 29, 31, 42, 50, 69, 15, 89, 138


ac a



WOE, AXITT. MAY, 1899. No. 1;


When I commenced collecting here in 1894, my enthusiasm was soon checked by the dearth of land shells, in which, since I first col- lected, I have been particularly interested. In fresh-water species things were different, as this list shows, but I have never felt the same interest in them, and my work here, as far as they are con- cerned, has been half-hearted, and I have done nothing at all during the past two seasons. Under these circumstances, I have thought it advisable to publish this list before my records get lost or destroyed. The most striking feature here (even after Quebec) was the utter absence of all the larger species of land shells (with the exception of the Succineas), and the scarcity of even the small kinds which have been taken. However, I am still impressed with the idea that some few of the larger species may occur, rarely perhaps, in the well- wooded districts lying in the extreme east, southeast and northeast of the Province. ‘The country I have worked here has been mostly prairie, even though swampy or wooded in places, and really almost -the only localities worth exploring are the river ‘“‘ bottoms.” Water shells, especially by contrast, are quite conspicuous; the sand dredged from’ the Red river for building purposes contains a mass of Spheeria, and along the river banks the large valves of Uniones are very notice- able. ‘The railway ditches and sluices, which are generally dry early in the summer, have in their bottoms a mass of Limnza, Aplexa and


small Planorbis. Often large areas of prairie, inundated during the spring, are covered with these dead shells, which are the *‘ land”. shells of the novice.

Soon after my arrival in Manitoba, I received a good deal of assist- ance from the Rev. George W. Taylor, of Gabriola Island, B. C., who kindly furnished me with lists of the species he had taken here in 1893, during a flying visit; also any other records or lists of Manitoba species that he knew of.

The lists furnished were as follows :

His own from Winnipeg in 1893.

Condray’s, also from Winnipeg.

Hollands’, from Norquay, Man.

Bells’, )

Christy’s, > all from Winnipeg eastward.


(The species taken by Condray and Holland being in his own <ol- lection.)

All these records are included in the subjoined list. Dr. V. Sterki, Mr. Ed. W. Roper, Mr. Jas. H. Ferriss and others, have kindly helped in the identification of the more troublesome things of my own taking. The numbers before the land shells (following Mr. H. A. Pilsbry’s valuable catalogue), show that our local or provincial spe- cies are few and far between.

(47. Acanthinula harpa Say.) This species has been taken along the north of Lake Superior, both West as well as East, and I feel sure is to be found in the northern unexplored parts of the province.

_ 48. Vallonia pulchella Mull. (Condray, Holland, Taylor, ete.) 50. Vallonia costata Mull. ‘Taken here under stones, etc., along railway banks.

(Dr. Sterki remarks of these costata, ‘‘a beautiful and interesting form with rather crowded ribs.’’) 7

53. Vallonia gracilicosta Reinh. Winnipeg in 1893, by Taylor.

180. Strobilops labyrinthica Say. (Christy and Holland.)

186. Lifidaria armifera Say. Very rare here, also taken by Tay- lor.. A rather small form occurs at. Brandon; very few were taken.

187. Bifidaria contracta Say. From Carberry, by Christy.

188. Bifidaria holzingeri Sterki. Rather plentiful here in the Spring of 1894 in Red River drift. Also taken by Condray and Taylor.



199. Bifidaria pentodon Say. A few taken here, also recorded by Condray and Taylor. (Dr. Sterki writes ‘* somewhat different from the typical figure, the last whorl comparatively small.’’)

219. Vertigo binneyana Sterki. Rare here, also taken hy Condray.

222. Vertigo ovata Say. Not uncommon here.

Vertigo sp. (2 examples) Winnipeg. (Dr. Sterki writes, ‘* in size, shape and striation much resembles V, gouldii Binn., but there is a peculiar, very strong callus in the palate.’’)

235. Coechlicopa lubrica Mull.(F. subcylindrica, Linn.) Well dis- tributed and not uncommon.

254. Vitrina limpida Gld. A few on ‘toad-stools” late in the fall. Several other records.

260. Vitrea hammonis Strém. (H. radiatula Ald.) From all points recorded.

264. Vitrea binneyana Morse? <A few shells taken at Brandon, were recorded as this species. They have been mislaid, or would have been referred to Dr. Sterki.

270. Vitrea indentata Say. From Pine Creek, by Christy.

278. Conulus fulvus Mull. Plentiful locally. (Dr. Sterki says, ‘¢ different to the usual form.’’)

282. Zonitoides nitidus Mull.? Some dead shells from river drift may be this species.

283. Zonitoides arboreus Say. From all points recorded.

290. Zonitoides minusculus Binn. A few dead shells from Red River drift. (Also Red River, Binney’s Manual.)

294. Zonitoides milium Morse. Very rare here.

316. Agriolimax campestris Binn. Seen occasionally in this dis- trict, not included in the other lists.

344. Pyramidula striatella Anth. Plentiful, in all lists.

346. Helicodiscus lineatus Say. Recorded by Condray. I have taken one or two shells here.

348. Punctum pygmeum Drap. Taken here, not included in other lists.

358. Succinea retusa Lea. (S. ovalis Gld.) My Winnipeg spe- cimens are ail small. (Christy, Dawson and Holland.)

360. Suceinea haydeni W. G. Binn. (Dawson.)

361. Succinea hawkinst Baird. Carberry. (Christy.)

362. Succinea obliqua Say. From all points recorded.

366. Succinea grosvenorti Lea. (S. lineata Binn.) Wood Moun- tain (Dawson).


367. Suecinea avara Say. Rather common here. (Christy, Dawson and Taylor.) Var. vermeta Say? (Referred to this by Dr. | Sterki.) A small colony taken under logs on railway bank near the. city. (If only S. avara, then an unusually large coarse form.)

370. Succinea oregonensis Lea. (A few examples referred to this species by Dr. Sterki). From Winnipeg.

Oarychium exiguum Say.) By no means abundant here. (Named

= exile Lea. ) © by Dr. Sterki.)

Spherium sulcatum Lam. (Christy, Dawson and Holland.)

as solidulum Prime. Common here in Red River. (Also: recorded by Christy & Dawson.) |

Spherium striatinum Lam. (Christy & Dawson.)

Ms stramineum Conrad. (Dawson). se rhomboideum Say. (Christy & Dawson.) is jayanum Prime. (Christy.)

ae tenue Prime. Souris River (Dawson). es transversum Say. Playgreen Lake (Bell). et simile Say. A single valve was in a lot of S. solidulum

referred to Mr. Ed. W. Roper for naming. Spherium partumecum Say. (Dawson.) One specimen taken here, kindly named by Mr. Roper. Pisidium virginicum Gmel. Lake of the Woods (Dawson). 6 variabile Prime. Pine Creek (Christy). abditum Hald. (Holland), a ferrissit Sterki. These are the only Pisidia I have found: here, and I took a small colony of them in moss in a dried-up swamp late in the year. Only a few appeared to be full grown (named by Dr. Sterki). Unio alatus Say. Have taken some fine shells along the banks of the Red River here. (Christy & Dawson). Unio asperrimus Lea. A few from Red River here. (Christy). ° ‘© borealis A. F. Gray. Lake of the Woods (Christy). ‘© canadensis Lea. (Taylor.) ‘© boydianius Marsh. Red River here. Kindly named by Mr. Ferriss. Unio gracilis Barnes. Not uncommon in Red River. » “© lachrymosus Lea. (Bell, Dawson & Taylor.) “© ligamentinus Lam. Roseau River (Dawson). ‘¢ hippopeus, I understand from Mr. Ferriss that this species has been taken in Lake Winnipeg. j


Unio luteolus Lam. Red River. (Christy, Dawson & Taylor.)

‘“ multiplicatus Lea. (Christy.)

‘© ocetdens Lea.? Red River.

«< plicatus Lesueur. (Bell & Christy.)

radiatus Lam. (Bell. )

* rectus Lam. Some large specimens, with beautiful nacre, have been taken from the Red River here. (Christy, Dawson & Taylor.)

Unio rubiginosus Lea. Common in Red River. (Christy, Daw- son & Taylor.) / Unio spatulatus Lea. (Red River, by Dawson.) ‘© subovatus Lea.? (Dawson.) “undulatus Barnes. (Christy, Dawson & Taylor.) Appears to be common in Red River. } Margaritana complanata Barnes. (Bell & Dawson.)

rugosa Barnes. (Dawson.) Anodonta ferussaciana Lea. Lake of the Woods. (Dawson.) «© footiana Lea. Souris River. (Dawson.) ge plana Lea.? I sent a shell to Mr. Ferriss, which he

considered this species. Anodonta subcylindracea Vea. (Holland.)

‘. undulata Say. (Bell & Dawson.)

Valvata tricarinata Say. Rare here. (Christy & Dawson.)

«< _ sincera Say. (Christy & Dawson.)

Campeloma decisum Say. Rare here. (Lake of Woods, Dawson.) Bythinella obtusa Lea. Winnipeg (also by Condray here). Amnicola porata Say. Lake of the Woods. (Dawson).

- pallida Hald. (Christy & Dawson.)

“66 granum Say. Pine Creek. (Christy.)

Limnea stagnalis L. I have taken a few dead shells along the Assiniboine River here. Also included in the other lists. Limnea decollata Mighels. Lake of the Woods (Dawson.)

‘¢ megasoma Say. Echimamish River (Bell).

‘< palustris Mull. On all the lists. Some shells which I think belong to this species are very prettily lined. This form is rather abundant in some of the marshes.

Limnea catascopium Say. Lake Manitoba, etc. Also on Daw- son’s list. Limnea caperata Say. On all the lists.


“© desidiosa Say. Winnipeg. Also by Christy. ‘© humilis Say. Winnipeg. Also by Christy and Dawson. Physa heterostropha Say. On all the lists. Quite uncommon here. ‘© ampullacea Gould.? ( Dawson.) ancillaria Say. Lake of the Woods (Dawson). Also rarely at Winnipeg. Apvlexa hypnorum L. On all lists. Usually a fine shell here. Planorbis corpulentus Say. Lake of the Woods (Dawson). i trivolvis Say. On all the lists.

a macrostomus Whiteaves. Lake of the Woods (Dawson).

= bicarinatus Say. (Bell and Dawson.)

a campanulatus Say. Winnipeg, also by Bell and Dawson.

a exacutus Say. Winnipeg, also by Christy, Dawson and Holland.

Planorbis albus Mill. (Holland and Taylor.) o parvus Say. On all the lists. ee umbilicatellus Ckll. (umbilicatus J. W. Taylor.) Bran- don (Christy, ete.). Planorbis cristatus L. A pair from this place, identified by Dr. Sterki. Planorbula armigera Say. On all the lists. Ancylus parallelus Hald. (Cliristy & Dawson.)

‘© rtwularis Say. (Dawson.)



N. Harperi, sp. nov.

Shell smooth, with slightly elevated growth lines, black towards the umbos and tinged with red towards the base. Shining above, rayless, oblique or very inequilateral. Umbos elevated and nicely rounded; substance of the shell moderately thick, thinner posteriorly ; bluntly pointed behind with an inclination to biangulation. Dorsum slightly arched, ligament red, basal margin slightly curved; umbonal ridge rounded above and decidedly flattened out at the posterior ex- tremity ; teeth double in the left and single in the right valve, cardi- nals pointed, compressed and oblique, with a supplemental tooth or pointed callosity in the right valve midway between the cardinal and

ae tie a

THK NAUTILUS. 7 lateral teeth and an accompanying depression in the opposing valve ; laterals straight with an elevated collar or ridge as an extension of the lower lateral tooth and extending up to the cardinal; cicatrices confluent, cavity of the beaks very slight, nacre pale white in old and flesh-colored in young.

Diameter .75, length 1.25, width 2 inches.

Habitats—Altamaha, Suwannee and Flint Rivers.

Type in National Museum.

Remarks: ‘T'wo adults were first received from the Altamaha River, Liberty County, Ga. Later three others came from the Suwannee River, Madison County, Fla., and still later twenty others from Spring Creek, a branch of the Flint River, in Decatur County, Ga.—showing quite a range, and yet in all of these places it seems to be a rare shell, as so few were received in large lots of several hundred. The teeth are quite large and sotid for the size of the shell. It is difficult to place it with any group, for which reason comparisons would seem out of place. The younger specimens bear some resem- blance to simulans or nux, but it is less inflated in the umbonal re- gion, and more compressed or flattened and pointed behind than either of them, and is also more oblique or inequilateral. It has heavier and blunter umbos and beaks than V. perovatus Con., and also a straighter base and less pointed behind.

We dedicate this species to Prof. George W. Harper, Principal of the Woodward High School, of Cincinnati, O.

U. Tinkeri, sp. nov.

Shell black above, shading off to a lighter color posteriorly and around the base, covered with close elevated growth lines; nearly circular, somewhat inflated ; ravless, except in the very young, which are covered with fine green rays; bluntly pointed behind, gracefully and continuously curved in front up to the dorsal margin; dorsum arched ; base abruptly extended near its center by reason of the broad, rounded ridge which extends from umbo to base; cardinal teeth solid, direct and double in both valves; lateral teeth double in the left and single in the right valve, heavy, somewhat curved, very deeply indented and coarsely serrated ; beak cavity considerable and very angular, anterior cicatrices separated by a mere thread, posterior cicatrices confluent ; nacre white or slightly flesh-colored.

Diam. 1, length 1.50, width 1.75 inches.

Habitat: Tombigbee River, Alabama.


Type in National Museum.

Remarks: This is another of those shells that is not strongly dis- tinct from other known forms and yet sufficiently removed from any to make a name necessary. It seems to lie between U. castaneus Lea and U. unicolor Lea—from the former it differs in being more circular, thinner, not tumid, not so oblique, darker colored, shorter lat- erals, less capacious, beaks blunter and undulations fewer and coarser. From unicolor it differs in being thicker, rougher, more inflated, narrower, pallial margin and white nacre. Some forms of it approach U. leibi Lea, but are less inclined to a quadrate outline and blacker, and the young are beautifully rayed.

We name this species for Prof, B. W. Tinker, Superintendent of Schools of Waterbury, Conn., who has a fine collection and takes special interest in this branch of natural science.

(To be continued.)


As will be seen by the following from a recent letter received from Mr. Hemphill, he has made another interesting discovery :

‘¢]T had a couple of hours a few days ago on the old oyster-beds at Alameda again, and have added Orepidula glauca Say to the intro- duced shells from the east. J send you samples of the dark and light varieties. The largest ones I send are as large as any among the 30 or 40 specimens I found.”

The largest measured 124 mm. by not quite 9 mm. and are quite characteristic. It remains to be seen whether this species will attain as large size in this new environment as in its native haunts. The last (February) NavuTiLus, it will be remembered, contained a brief note, announcing the detection of Musus (Urosalpinx) cinereus, in this same locality, on the eastern shore of the bay, a dozen miles or so distant from where U. cinereus was first discovered. This is Mr. Hemphill’s third find of eastern forms in San Francisco Bay.

The specimens above noted are in the U. 8S. National Museum No. 158501.

Rosert E. C. STEARNS.

Los Angeles, Cal., March 10, 1899.




Mason University College, Birmingham, England.

Whilst in Washington, D. C., a friend of mine collected for me a few slugs from a garden, amongst which I was surprised to find a single specimen of Arion fasciatus Nils. The specimen measured (in alcohol) 26 mill., and is of a brown color with darker lateral bands which are continued to the anterior border of the mantle; the foot- sole is almost white and there is a faint keel; it approaches very closely the var. neustrvacus Mabille. Adult keeled forms of this variety are very uncommon in the British Isles, and from this fact I assumed that this individual had probably been introduced from Europe. My friend has since ascertained that such is very likely the ease, as he has learned that a previous owner of the garden was in the habit of importing plants which were usually packed in moss.

A. fasciatus is easily distinguished from dA. hortensis Fér., by its white foot-sole, and from the majority of the species of this genus by the peculiar form of the receptaculum seminis, which instead of being pyriform or oval in shape, is elongated, terminating in a long pointed apex.



It has been considered almost an axiom that the American Pisidia lie eo ipso distinct from those of the eastern continent. But last year, the efforts of several conchologists have brought to light a number of species which are identical with European forms.

1. In Lake Ontario, on the New York shore, by Mr. Frank C. Baker; in the Hamilton Bay, Ontario, by Mr. James Johnston, a Pisidium has been collected which is absolutely identical with a form from England received as amnicum Miill., and, as it seems, not dis- tinct from one of France, under the same name. Mr. Clessin, to whom a few specimens were submitted, thinks it not exactly amni- cum. Considering the great variability of most Pisidia, these forms must be studied further. | 2. Pis. henslowianum Shep. has also been collected in Hamilton Bay, Lake Ontario, by Mr. James Johnston; a number of good specimens.


3. Pis. milium Held, conforming with European specimens, have been collected in Straits Lake, Michigan, by Mr. Bryant Walker, and in Dallas Lake, Stearns County, Minn., by Mr. H. E. Sargent. Among a number of fossils from a marl bed in Tuscala County, Mich., also collected by Mr. Walker, there was one valve of the same species.

4. In Aroostook County, Maine, Olof O. Nylander has founda few specimens of a Pisidium identical with one from England named milium Held, which, however, Mr. Clessin says, is not that species. It is of somewhat the same shape and color, but larger and the beaks are more prominent.

The question whether these Pisidia be native or introduced is an- swered, at least for milium, by the fossil found. As to No. 4, an im- portation is rather improbable, from its habitat. For Nos. 1 and 2 the possibility of a colonization cannot be denied, just as bithynia tentaculata has immigrated from Europe, and, on the other hand, Calyculina transversa Say seems to have been transported into Eng- Jand. Further researches are very desirable, and also fossils should be secured wherever such may be obtainable.

5. Pis. contortum Pr. This Pisidium has been described, in 1852, as a fossil sp. from Massachusetts, and has lately been collected from marl beds in Maine by Mr. Nylander, and in Michigan, by Mr. Walker. Last vear Mr. Nylander succeeded in finding a few recent, living specimens, in Aroostook Co., Me. The shell is transparent, of a deep wine or amber color, the surface highly polished.

6. Pris. medianum, n. sp. Mussel of rather small size, elliptical in outline, much inflated, often of somewhat irregular growth; superior and inferior margins moderately curved, posterior well rounded, or with a slight angle above, anterior rounded or slightly truncated ob- liquely; beaks rather in the middle, slightly directed toward the posterior, rather high, prominent over the hinge margin; scutum and scutellum very slightly marked; surface with very fine, crowded stria, somewhat shining, Jight horn to yellowish or straw colored ; shell thin, nacre colorless, muscle insertions barely perceptible; hinge fine, plate narrow ; cardinal teeth lamellar, slightly curved, the right one in its posterior part somewhat thicker, simple or with a fine, longitudinal groove; lateral teeth pointed, the outer ones of the right valve comparatively large ; ligament fine, long. 2.5 to 3.5, alt. 2.0. to 2.8, diam, 1.7 to 2.3, mill.

Ie ee ee ee


Habitat: Michigan, all over the state; lakes in Wisconsin.

Var. minutum,n. Smaller, less elongated, of more regular shape, almost globular when fully grown, usually of deeper color, surface with very fine striation, polished, but almost always covered witha greenish or blackish coating. Aroostook County, Me., very com- mon in some waters, collected by Mr. Olof O. Nylander; Mohawk, N. Y., in the collection of the late Dr. James Lewis ; also some forms from Michigan rather range with the variety, e. g., from Hess lake, collected by Mr. L. H. Streng. This Pis¢diwm has been known for years. But owing to the fact that Pis. rotundatum Pr., of almost the same size, was not exactly known, it was thought better to defer publication. It is one of the best characterized of our species, not nearly related to or resembling any other Pisidium, except P. ferru- gineum Pr.,' which is at once distinguished by the strong ridges on the beaks. Ps. medianum is mainly characterized by its beaks being almost exactly in the middle of the mussel, its anterior part being sometimes even smaller than the posterior. Hence its name.

Specimens have been collected in deeper water, 24 meters, of Lake Michigan, off New York point, and also from the stomachs of white- fish, sent by Mr. Bryant Walker. Among a lot from Blue Lake, Michigan, collected by Dr. R. J. Kirkland, there were many speci- mens with that peculiar, perpendicular scar so often seen in Pisidia and Sphaeria, but unusually deep.

7. Pis. kirklandi,n. sp. Mussel of medium size, somewhat oblique, well inflated when mature, very little so in the young, high, rather oval in outline; superior margin strongly, inferior moderately curved, posterior slightly truncated, passing into the superior by an obtuse, rounded angle, antero-superior slightly curved or almost straight, sloping toward the rounded anterior end; scutum well, scutellam slightly marked; beaks somewhat posterior, high and prominent in the mature, low in the young mussel, with stout ridges, highest at the posterior and slanting towards the anterior ends, slightly sinuous on the outer sides; surface with very coarse, rather regular striation, dull, rugulose, straw colored in the young, light grayish in the adult with a light zone along the margin; shell rather thick, nacre almost glossy, appearing bluish in old specimens, muscle insertions distinct ; hinge stout, hinge plate broad ; cardinal teeth of moderate size, rather high up on the plate, the right one angular, its posterior part thick-

'That species has, so far, been seen only from New England and New York.


ened, with or without a groove; below it is a deep excavation ; left cardinal teeth: the anterior rather stout but its edge acute, the pos- terior oblique, slightly curved; lateral teeth stout, the outer ones of the right valve quite small; ligament strong.

Long. 4, alt. 3.8, diam. 2.7 mill.

Habitat: Michigan, Illinois, Ohio.

In a lot from the Grand River, at Grand Rapids, Mich., collected by Dr. Reynold J. Kirkland, in whose honor the species is named, there were over two hundred specimens, most of them young and half grown, in company with Ps. compressum Pr. (thousands of dif- ferent forms), fallax, eruciatum, punctatum, and a number of other species. A few from Berry Lake, Chicago, were sent by the Chicago Academy of Science (Mr. F. C. Baker), and one single valve was found in the Anglaize River, tributary to the Maumee River, Lake Erie drainage, by the writer, in 1898, in company with Pis. compres- sum Pr. :

Pis. kirklandi is related to P. compressum Pr., and more so to fallax St. From the former, it is at once distinguished by the more rounded outlines of the adult specimens ; the young are higher in the anterior part, and the mussel is nearly square, while the young of compressum are more triangular; and in the latter, the beaks are higher, the (young) mussel is of comparatively larger diameter. From P. fallax it differs by its larger size, the coarse striation, the shape of the ridges and the grayish color.

Pis. septentrionale Prime.’ The name being pre-occupied for a Lapland species, P. fallax var. septentrionale St. must be changed, and v. boreale is herewith proposed.

New Philadelphia, Ohio, March, 1899.


CocHLICOPA LUBRICA in Alaska. In the article describing fyalina pellucida and H. arctica, Science Record, II, p. 172, 1884, Mr. Lehnert records finding a specimen of the above species in the same dried-plant packing material the Hyaline were found in, from Point Barrow, Alaska.

West Coast Oyster Hermarauropitic.—F. L. Washburn, of the University of Oregon, has lately confirmed Prof. Schiedt’s dis- covery that male and female elements co-exist in the West American oyster. There seems to be no evidence of protandry, mature eggs and spermatozoa existing at the same time. The full account is in Science for March 31.

1Cat. Corbiculade, 1895; p. 61, Undescribed.”


VoL. XITI. JUNE, 1899. No. 2.


When I began searching this region for land shells, about four years ago, I had done no land collecting, and for that matter but very little in any line, and there have been many surprises. It is a very dry region and I did not expect to find much, and, indeed, molluscan life is scarce, but it has proven of sufficient interest to make up in quality what it lacks in quantity. This is due to the fact that these territories were little known to the conchologist, and to the existence of many mountain ranges, separated by vast stretches of semi-arid plains, isolating them, as far as their molluscan life is con- cerned, and thereby increasing the probability of the presence of new forms in the different mountain areas.

My collecting has had to be done ‘‘on the side,’ with a regular vocation, as time could be snatched for it. But the


in connection

regular work has taken me over a considerable part of both territories, and so afforded an opportunity of collecting in a number of different localities, though seldom giving time for a sufficiently thorough search of any of them.

With but few exceptions, no land shells are found except in the high altitudes of the mountains, these localities only supplying suffic- ient moisture and vegetation, and the collector must be prepared for long tramps and much climbing and hard lifting as well, in overturn- ing rocks and logs to reveal the hiding place of these tiny creatures.


I have found shells at 10,000 feet alt., and other collectors: still higher. I once walked fifteen miles in one day, and upset rocks and logs enough, I should think, to materially change the appearance of the entire locality, and had to take a train at 10 p. m. and ride till 3 o’clock. After a day of this tramping, climbing and lifting, without finding much, I have asked myself, Does this pay? but have been just as eager to improve the next opportunity, no matter how much hard work it involved.

Sometimes the most promising locality has yielded nothing of spec- ial interest, while a less likely field has produced new species. Espec- ially has this been the case in places that at first seemed too dry to be worth investigating, but which have later been found to contain minute forms, especially Pupide. This fact, taken in connection with their minuteness, accounts mainly for the new Bifidariz being mostly recent finds. 3

A horseback ride of twenty miles from Crittenden, Arizona, with a companion, brought us into the Santa Rita Mountains, where we camped one night with no roof but the blue canopy. A half day’s collecting in what seemed a very promising canon resulted in only about forty specimens all told; but when I found the lot to contain Bifidaria pilsbryana, further west than before known, and tke first examples of bifid. ashmuni Sterki, my disappointment was percep- tibly mollified. ;

One Monday morning I walked four miles up the very dry Eph- raim cafon, having to be back in just four hours from the time of starting. I covered the eight miles, had two hours for collecting, and was back on schedule time with but few shells, but they included Bifidaria perversa Sterki, and ifid dalliana Sterki, both n. sp., and Bifid. ashmuni form minor. ‘The representatives of this genus are so minute that they easily elude one’s search, especially in dark canons and beneath thick undergrowth; and 1 have found it of advantage, particularly when my time was limited, to gather the dirt and leaves found to contain them and carry it away. I usually have a flour sack in my pocket for the purpose. About a peck of such dirt taken home from Jerome, Arizona, nearly 500 miles, ‘‘ panned out” 93 DBifid. hordeacella var. parvidens Stevki, n. var., and about 40 Thysanophora horni Gabb, but it took many hours to look it over. At the present writing, I have dirt from five different localities, ranging from 100 to 850 miles from home, perhaps two bushels in all, waiting to be


examined, The greater part of it is river drift. I have just now shipped it 500 miles to my new home.

My experience has given emphasis to the importance, readily ap- preciated in marine collecting, of securing many examples of what one finds, though time has not always permitted it. The Hoosier woman who advised her husband to *‘ git a plenty while yer gittin,”’ was wise in her day and generation.

In 1895, 1 found a quantity of Physa virgata traski Lea, in Salt River, at Tempe, Arizona, large and fine, and a goodly number were taken. The same locality has been revisited a half dozen times since, but. not until April, 1899, have I again seen as large ones. Cirnega is the Spanish word applied to a marshy place from which water flows—at once a marsh and a spring. In one of these, near Critten- den, Arizona, in the summer of 1897, I found Physa mexicana con- oidea, and under logs, Bifidaria pentodon; but it was late in the afternoon when I reached the place, and I could secure but few of either. I had supposed it a perpetual spring, but returning last fall, I found it as dry as a floor.

Nota little of my collecting has been done in snatches of time when it seemed almost an accident that anything was discovered. As the train on the Santa Pacific R. R. stopped one morning at Navajo Springs, Ariz., I rushed down to the bed of the (then dry) Rio Puerco of the West (Arizona rivers sometimes run bottom-side up), to see if I could pick up something from the drift, not expecting the train to stop more than five minutes at the most. But fortunately a freight accident ahead delayed our train two hours, and I gathered twenty- one species. ~The other passengers were grumbling over a late break- fast, but a trifle like a belated meal does not disturb a “shell crank”’ when there is any collecting on hand.

On the 13th of last January I was taking the 90-mile stage drive to White Oaks, N. M.; as the stage stopped to change teams at 9 a. m., I walked on ahead with no thought of any collecting at that time of the year, but passing an artificial pond I concluded to take a look at it. By breaking the ice I secured five examples of Physa mexicana, Phil. My hands were cut on the ice and chilled by the wind. JI had nothing to put my shells in, and carried them in my hand for an hour till I found an empty cartridge and could deposit my shells within a shell. At 3 p.m., when the next change was made, I again walked on; and under some rocks, where the snow had


melted, I found three Bifid. hordeacella, which I deposited in my spectacle case for want of a better receptacle. I expected the stage every minute, but